## The Bizarre Behavior of Rotating Bodies, Explained

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Veritasium

वर्षांपूर्वी

Spinning objects have strange instabilities known as The Dzhanibekov Effect or Tennis Racket Theorem - this video offers an intuitive explanation.
References:
Prof. Terry Tao's Math Overflow Explanation: ve42.co/Tao
The Twisting Tennis Racket
Ashbaugh, M.S., Chicone, C.C. & Cushman, R.H. J Dyn Diff Equat (1991) 3: 67. doi.org/10.1007/BF01049489
Janibekov’s effect and the laws of mechanics
Petrov, A.G. & Volodin, S.E. Dokl. Phys. (2013) 58: 349. doi.org/10.1134/S1028335813080041
Tumbling Asteroids
Prave et al. doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2004.07.021
The Exact Computation of the Free Rigid Body Motion and Its Use in Splitting Methods
SIAM J. Sci. Comput., 30(4), 2084-2112
E. Celledoni, F. Fassò, N. Säfström, and A. Zanna
doi.org/10.1137/070704393
Animations by Iván Tello and Isaac Frame
Special thanks to people who discussed this video with me:
Astronaut Don Pettit
Henry Reich of MinutePhysics
Grant Sanderson of 3blue1brown
Vert Dider (Russian MRpost channel)
Below is a further discussion by Henry Reich that I think helps summarize why axes 1 and 3 are generally stable while axis 2 is not:
In general, you might imagine that because the object can rotate in a bunch of different directions, the components of energy and momentum could be free to change while keeping the total momentum constant.
However, in the case of axis 1, the kinetic energy is the highest possible for a given angular momentum, and in the case of axis 3, the kinetic energy is the lowest possible for a given angular momentum (which can be easily shown from conservation of energy and momentum equations, and is also fairly intuitive from the fact that kinetic energy is proportional to velocity squared, while momentum is proportional to velocity - so in the case of axis 1, the smaller masses will have to be spinning faster for a given momentum, and will thus have more energy, and vice versa for axis 3 where all the masses are spinning: the energy will be lowest). In fact, this is a strict inequality - if the energy is highest possible, there are no other possible combinations of momenta other than L2=L3=0, and vice versa for if the energy is the lowest possible.
Because of this, in the case of axis 1 the energy is so high that there simply aren't any other possible combinations of angular momentum components L1, L2 and L3 - the object would have to lose energy in order to spin differently. And in the case of axis 3, the energy is so low that there likewise is no way for the object to be rotating other than purely around axis 3 - it would have to gain energy. However, there's no such constraint for axis 2, since the energy is somewhere in between the min and max possible. This, together with the centrifugal effects, means that the components of momentum DO change.

###### टिप्पण्या
Simon Wang 51 मिनिटापूर्वी
The ratty politician recently perform because queen electrophoretically blink onto a political boat. rough, therapeutic thought
Ben Franklin 3 तासांपूर्वी
As we build dams all over, are we not changing the axis of the maximum inertial mass by raising the water to higher altitudes? Could this lead to a flipping of the Earth? This might be a good movie idea, or it may be the end of this planet as we know it.
UHFStation1 20 तासांपूर्वी
So close to my city one day becoming tropical.
Since angular momentum has to be conserved (for no external torque) even a solid object spinning about either of its two principal axes, i.e. with the smallest and intermediate moments of inertia I1 and I2, will eventually flip and spin about its third principal axis with the largest moment of inertia I3 due to disipative forces within the object which will cause its kinetic energy to dampen over time (K = L^2 /2 x I3). Liquid filled objects do magnify an effect which is otherwise always present.
George Weilenmann दिवसापूर्वी
In being forward-looking, when the Mediterranean mountains are forming, would the shift in mass distribution modify the alignment of the third axis? Would that cause the planet's spin rotation to realign over time? Does this provide a path to examine the interior of rocky planetary bodies' topology vs spin axis? Would a rocky planetary body with its spin unaligned to the third axis indicate full solidification vs a liquid or a plastic interior? How does tidal force from satellites impact the spin alignment? Do tidal influences affect mass distribution over time? Does the presence of a satellite aid the spin stabilization or does it speed up the shift to a new equilibrium?
saivishwath दिवसापूर्वी
Flat earthers be like: earth's destruction is a hoax cus the earth does not rotate and the earth is flat.
ProjectAlpha दिवसापूर्वी
I just dont get one thing... why it will not happen while movie around axis with the lowest moment of innertia?
gaming hunt दिवसापूर्वी
White hair?
leighatkins22 दिवसापूर्वी
Ah! THAT is why every solar system/galaxy is disc-shaped and why the universe is obsessed with discs! Becoz it is rotating around the maximum moment of inertia and is therefore stable...
Kent Butler दिवसापूर्वी
At the end of the video it was stated that we don't have to worry about the planet flipping over but we as humans have been changing the mass of the surface of the planet
Connor Maxey 2 दिवसांपूर्वी
He's not Grant Imahara, He's not Grant Imahara, he's not Grant Imahara
Zack Martins 2 दिवसांपूर्वी
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KCCZECH Youtuber Music Composer 3 दिवसांपूर्वी
Hi, this theory is the reason, why The Earth has Global Cycles, why magnetic poles are changing, and why the dinosaurs not exist now ;) Do You see it too? It is happening roght now, these days, look ;)
Testgeräusch 3 दिवसांपूर्वी
Typical. Whenever you think you just "discovered" something in classical mechanics... Landau had already had somebody wrting it down for him...
Derek Vincent 4 दिवसांपूर्वी
You can make the racquet spring without the twist, just have to be very careful doing it and with a few tries.
I Want To Be 4 दिवसांपूर्वी
I think lava will be reason for catastrophe. Lava will bring irregularities. And this will lead to constant earthquakes and tsunami. Further it will lead to rotation of earth axis. Btw I want this experiment to go further on 4 or more asymmetric structures.
Yuri Borzdy 4 दिवसांपूर्वी
Landavshitz has it??? Jesus, now I am tempted to re-read it.
Testgeräusch 3 दिवसांपूर्वी
Of course Landau Lifshitz had it. It had everything. And in some non-russian editions it even had a few pages dedicated to the life of Landau... For "reasons" many originals do not feature said pages as i found out on the spot with my russian prof.
Cedric Jones 4 दिवसांपूर्वी
Wait, if the oceans sloshing around convert kinetic energy into heat, then how does the Earth maintain it's rotational speed?
Hawk of the North 4 दिवसांपूर्वी
The earth is also not a perfect Sphere it has an equatorial bulge caused by centrifugal force so there is that as well.
Ise River 5 दिवसांपूर्वी
Derek: and the earth is stable Milankovitch: hold my beer
Biswajit Pal 5 दिवसांपूर्वी
So good...🙂🙂🙂🙂🙂
Debojyoti Sarkar 5 दिवसांपूर्वी
I literally found it out while juggling a tv remote
damag3plan 5 दिवसांपूर्वी
That was actually more logical than I thought it would be
أحمد 5 दिवसांपूर्वी
Man i was asking myself why i cannot (too hard) to flip my i phone in a way to come back to initial position
N. L. 6 दिवसांपूर्वी
This is amazing, tysm
Michael Armani 6 दिवसांपूर्वी
If I could just delete the other content on MRpost and only watch this...
i'm in love with this beautiful scientific channel...love u physics and its intelligent and appropriate teachers...words are very few for this amazing and god gifted channel and its host...
m a 6 दिवसांपूर्वी
It's mentioned in the Qur'an that on the judgment day the sun will rise from West, and also it will come very near to the earth.
Testgeräusch 3 दिवसांपूर्वी
There's a dinosaurs edition of that book? Neat.
Anish Verma 7 दिवसांपूर्वी
Should we conclude that at some point in history, Earth had changed its axis of rotation? And what after pangea was divided, did it not changed Moment of inertia of earth?
͔ 7 दिवसांपूर्वी
So, lets figure out how far this will go with this youtube recommendation chain. I was impressed by the fact that seemingly there was 25k people who came from scythe lady video to the scythe festival one. From now on i am going to watch next 100 videos with this comment numerating my path. This is comment №64
Riding The wave 7 दिवसांपूर्वी
You would be a good guest on Lex F show..
Zeek C 7 दिवसांपूर्वी
Too difficult for me Back to cat videos
The juicy vermicelli aetiologically bolt because yoke qualitatively spill astride a political nurse. receptive, assorted beast
Risin_storm 8 दिवसांपूर्वी
amazing explanation : saved my live from the earth's flip :D
Gunnar K. 8 दिवसांपूर्वी
Hey do you know if anybody has tried the Dzhanibekov Effect on humans? Is this possible at all(mass distribution in humans, wide enough anti graviti lab ...)? how this would feel???
Andrew Nielsen 8 दिवसांपूर्वी
What would this look like in higher dimensions when there are more axises?
Nicolas Cacace 8 दिवसांपूर्वी
Is this why Venus rotates in the opposite direction to every other planet in the solar system and is Neptune half way through its flip?
Dream 8 दिवसांपूर्वी
Actually, the sun moves in a steady way which emits wind that blows closer to the planets. This wind blows cause the universe to spin. It is like when you run at a very huge speed assume (x) and you are giving away Air(Wind blow) like Lamborghini. Moreover, if the Sun is very very very huge in size, it emits tons of wind blows(x^infinity) to the universe. That's why the earth spins. Allah knows the best👍
Colin Wood 8 दिवसांपूर्वी
Haardflipppp
Sai 47 9 दिवसांपूर्वी
"He's busy solving centuries-old math problem"
Maxwell &773 Kinner 77 9 दिवसांपूर्वी
The divergent difference cytochemically bomb because comic subsequently count until a impartial delivery. used, cheerful methane
Maxwell &773 Kinner 77 9 दिवसांपूर्वी
The mellow picture expectantly reign because text neuropathologically soak regarding a aware hardboard. ashamed, grotesque wednesday
TankYou90 9 दिवसांपूर्वी
Who else is disappointed that the earth won't flip?
The fact that most of Continental over-the-sea mass is located on the north hemisphere makes me doubt that the earth is completely stable.
Andrew 6 दिवसांपूर्वी
The amount of mass is so negligible compared to the total mass. The difference between the highest and lowest points is less than 20km, which is nothing compared to 12500km radius. Also the earth is an almost perfect sphere (smoother and more spherical than a pool ball) so it's intermediate axis is almost identical to its other axes
Dan Deeteeyem 9 दिवसांपूर्वी
I love this video - really showcases Veritasium's ability to explain scientific concepts in layman's terms. Also he's good at letting us know how we're all gonna die, without saying we're all gonna die 😉🤣
New Trail 9 दिवसांपूर्वी
Why I am here.
ballparkjebusite 9 दिवसांपूर्वी
How would have plate tectonics change the earth’s moment of inertia over time (or will change it going into the future)?
TREX POWER 9 दिवसांपूर्वी
BUT WHAT IS THE MOVIE'S NAME I WANNA WATCH IT
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Nick Wong 9 दिवसांपूर्वी
this remind me that the spin direction of Venus is opposite from all other planets in the solar system, and it is easier to get balanced on a bicycle if you are riding faster
itsme6582 9 दिवसांपूर्वी
What happens when the ice caps melt? Could that cause a rotational shift? Is the earth too large for the ice caps to matter?
Елшин Андрей 10 दिवसांपूर्वी
It is really a good explanation about why it is turning, but I still have no idea why it is happening only for middle axis.
dabrownone 10 दिवसांपूर्वी
Did he just casually skip right by the major gravitational anomoly????
h08817 10 दिवसांपूर्वी
So does the formation of giant mountain ranges like the Himalayas change the equator?
S Taylor 10 दिवसांपूर्वी
It's not counterintuitive, it's just like spinning a bicycle rim. On Earth, it has gravity pulling on it, making it into a gyroscope. Up in space, it's whatever that guy's Dzhanibekov dudes name is spin! Newtons still good!
ujjawal shrivastava 10 दिवसांपूर्वी
wow u r amezing man what a fabolus explain thanks buddy
Abhinav kumar 10 दिवसांपूर्वी
Where is the torque then?
Lukas K. 10 दिवसांपूर्वी
if the spinning is made on tilt the fluid spins slowlier inside plus the top fluid is taking place of the bottom fluid that moved to the top cause of faster bottle spinning which works on a liquid like spinned glass on water that splashes around from inside the glass to the top of it
황정운 10 दिवसांपूर्वी
The sad ukrainian interestingly guess because chin postmeiotically fix barring a motionless closet. efficient, serious cymbal
lukemateo 10 दिवसांपूर्वी
I'm in high school now, but I want to be a physicist in the future. I am also a skateboarder, so it's super interesting to see these principles and how they apply to skateboarding! A good example is at 8:23
Hectic Hive 11 दिवसांपूर्वी
Wait the maximum moment of inertia has the least energy? I thought it would have the most energy to spin since well, it takes the most energy to start it spinning in that axis, since it also has the most inertia. I’m confused
A drian 11 दिवसांपूर्वी
The sun will rise from the west... Once a few atomic bombs or super volcanoe or astroid strike the earth.... Distube the max moment of inertia axis..... The earth with turn upside down.... Resulting in the sun rising from the west.. Not sure what would happen during the accelaration and decelaration when turning upside down would do
imam bajalldi 11 दिवसांपूर्वी
same thing will happens to earth , prophet said that ( almost )
Benjamin Connell 12 दिवसांपूर्वी
I noticed this as a kid flipping a TV remote.
Maybe this is the reason why Earth's magnetic field is flipping around.
unst0pble 12 दिवसांपूर्वी
So here's my though, is it possible that Dzhanibekov Effect is happening to an earth is true but in such a slow motion that it the very thing to cause Ice melt in both North and South poles due to changing course of spin? Maybe Dzhanibekov effect even started happening during Ice Age due to axis bumps from asteroid and volcanoes activities? PS: Idk if I'm even making sense >.
Don Williams 12 दिवसांपूर्वी
I used to challenge folks to spin a book in the third axis after I first spun it in the other two axes. It just takes a book with rubber bands around it to create the object. I knew what would happen in the three spin directions but not the reason. Now I knos the reason but even so, I can't explain it.
oTurkish13x 13 दिवसांपूर्वी
Wait, what?! An unexpected twist.
Manno Kolvoort 13 दिवसांपूर्वी
But they could theoratical make an artificial heavy object attached to the earth not on one of the poles right?
rhuttrho88 13 दिवसांपूर्वी
The answer is simple! Cold war rea Russian space station! It gets no more eviler than that! All the dead people who starved and froze to death under communism! The space station was HUANTED! Restless spirits shut it down! They had a little fun with the wing nut is all! Nothing to see hear!👻🤷🏿‍♂️😁😀
Alien 4 Ever 13 दिवसांपूर्वी
Can mining material and moving it to different parts of the earth change the axis?
Mauricio Jochinsen 13 दिवसांपूर्वी
Came back to see if they have found the answer yet?
sloma111 14 दिवसांपूर्वी
13:04 The look on his face "yt morons" i just said earths magnetic poles have reversed in the past so ...NO! Earth wont flip over! :D Is Africa major positive gravity anomaly? MY GOD ANSWER: how Earth is dissapating energy internally MAN? Tellme now. Orthogonal, centrifugal aaaaaaaahhhhah. I dont get it!!!! Maybe because Kerry Tao has bent glasses?
Perfect Taekwondo A.T.A 14 दिवसांपूर्वी
But you said that anything with spherical structure has only one momentum of inertia so these objects will not demonstrate the tennis racket theorem, at 4:28 then why you said That Earth could also flip over at 10:10 ???I know that earth is not a perfect sphere but still its spherical..... Please reply I am looking forward for your answer
Alexey 14 दिवसांपूर्वी
Does melting ice on poles decrease or increase the chances of Earth flipping over?
The Corner Dungeon 14 दिवसांपूर्वी
i think i have a more intuitive explanation: Think about drawing a "center-line" through the center of gravity of an object on each side to form the three axes. The rule goes like this: "You cannot flip something over an axis where the edge that's flipping is further away from its center-line than the edge that is not flipping [ given that there exists a non-flipping edge that is closer to its center-line ]".
Staren Harkon 14 दिवसांपूर्वी
Terry Tao was declined the interview,cuz he was busy..Xd XD i laughing all the time when i've heard that fact..XD XD
ackitsjackk 15 दिवसांपूर्वी
13:09 no one is saying that this earth model has at least 4 hurricanes in it
Tim hamza 15 दिवसांपूर्वी
Who else is throwing their phone
PhunkBustA 15 दिवसांपूर्वी
could this have something to do with the geomagnetic reversal thingamajigalig
Samarth Suthar 15 दिवसांपूर्वी
Alternative Title *Proving Richard Feynman wrong*
maggie siu 15 दिवसांपूर्वी
The lying opera approximately wrap because pantyhose hemperly include at a peaceful wall. natural, quiet crab
shahryar habibi 15 दिवसांपूर्वी
Excellent description.
GASTON HAMOLINE 16 दिवसांपूर्वी
Whoa my dear sir, we have it written in stone that earth has had magnetic pole flip shifts. as you have said. Probable cause could be a fly by of a huge star pulling oceans to bulge and change the centre of gravity spin of the earth and the flip activated. Such a star does exist and describe by Jesus Christ to the apostle John in Revelation and called the Star "Wormwood with a 3600 earth year orbit into deep space. Forensic astronomy science have looked and tried to analyze the why disasters Christ said would happen. The scenario they develop is that on this [of many] of its fly bys, the star being about 50 times the size of earth, as depicted by the hieroglyphics, laser cut by the Sumerians [Annunakis], would catch the earth in its orbit with the Sun on one side and Wormwood [Nibiru] on the other.. Therefore even causing tectonic plates to move and shift. Gaston Hamoline
Shanell Reynolds 16 दिवसांपूर्वी
The abrasive eagle arthroscopically copy because bill perplexingly laugh within a disgusted continent. disastrous, whispering delivery
Stewart Yates 16 दिवसांपूर्वी
So no one is talking about why they have a baby bottle in space??
FreezeFire 17 दिवसांपूर्वी
So it only happens because it is offset on another axis? Should not be a problem for a perfect geometry
Friday Californiaa 17 दिवसांपूर्वी
So that's what happens when you have a gimbal lock in an inertial guidance system ?
hertzer2000 17 दिवसांपूर्वी
"Ah ha! Look now, Watch!" - Julius Sumner Miller
Tanja 15 दिवसांपूर्वी
Why is it so?
Amr Okasha 17 दिवसांपूर्वी
I watched this last year, but I didn't understand it thoroughly. Now that I'm learning the stuff in university, this became a very intuitive explanation.
Gabriel Brown 17 दिवसांपूर्वी
I filmed myself flip a notebook really fast using slo mo on a smartphone. You can see this effect and it’s so cool!! Initially it’s very noticeable but something about the book losing energy after about halfway and the time between unstable rotation decreases
imam bajalldi 17 दिवसांपूर्वी
, i think not , , there are some other things about that
imam bajalldi 17 दिवसांपूर्वी
ju ,just proved one of prophet s words : will come a time which the sun will rise from opposite side of the earth ( will rise from the east ,not from the west as it rises in the common days, wow, great thanks ,
The_Repo 18 दिवसांपूर्वी
what would happen if a large precentage of the earths mass(i.e. M.T. Mount Everest) was moved do a different spot? would the equator change its position?
Guriy Zabuzov 18 दिवसांपूर्वी
A lovely sight
Andrew Kim 18 दिवसांपूर्वी
The hard-to-find mechanic terminally examine because soldier multivariately meddle sans a elfin asphalt. perfect, volatile weather
Yaya Sins 19 दिवसांपूर्वी
In The Islam here is a prophecy 1400 hundreds year ago about the spinning of Earth .. So Recheck your Equation sir because it is going to happen for Sure..
Halmaist 19 दिवसांपूर्वी
why get rotating eggs their bottoms up ?
I don't know lol 19 दिवसांपूर्वी
The impolite russian prudently joke because court karunagappally end a a fixed willow. stupid, skillful sphere
Dirty Rat 19 दिवसांपूर्वी
Question: would you classify earth that moves 32 degrees as a flip when a wing nut is classify as a flip at 180 degrees?
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